Félix Leclerc chante “Le Tour de l’île”

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Québec, vue de l’île d’Orléans, Jean-Paul Lemieux, 1963 (Wikiart)

La Récréation, Jean-Paul Lemieux, 1961 (Wikiart)

Paroles de la chanson « Le Tour de l’île »

Félix Leclerc (1914-1988)

Pour supporter     To bear
Le difficile     The difficult
Et l’inutile      And the useless
Y a l’tour de l’île     There’s the island to go round
Quarante-deux milles     Forty-two miles (67 km)
De choses tranquilles     Of things quiet
Pour oublier     To forget
Grande blessure     Gaping wounds
Dessous l’armure     ‘neath the shield
Eté, hiver     Summer, winter
Y a l’tour de l’île     There’s the island to go round
L’Ile d’Orléans      L’île d’Orléans

L’Île c’est comme Chartres     The island’s like Chartres
C’est haut et propre     It’s high and clean
Avec des nefs      With naves
Avec des arcs     With arches
Des corridors     Corridors
Et des falaises     And cliffs

En février     In February
La neige est rose     The snow is pink
Comme chair de femme     Like a woman’s flesh
Et en juillet     And in July
Le fleuve est tiède     The river’s tepid
Sur les battures     On the sandbars
Au mois de mai     In the month of May
A marée basse     At low tide
Voilà les oies     Here come the geese
Depuis des siècles     For centuries
Au mois de juin     In the month of June
Parties les oies     The geese have gone
Mais nous les gens     But we the people
Les descendants     Descendants of people
De La Rochelle     From La Rochelle
Présents tout l’temps     We’re here all the time
Surtout l’hiver     In winter mostly
Comme les arbres      Like trees

Mais c’est pas vrai      But it’s not true
Ben oui c’est vrai      Well, yes it’s true
Écoute encore     Listen again

Maisons de bois     Wooden houses
Maisons de pierre     Stone houses
Clochers pointus     Pointed bell towers
Et dans les fonds     And in the back
Des pâturages     Grazing fields
De silence     Of silence
Des enfants blonds     Blond children
Nourris d’azur     Fed by the sky
Comme les anges     Like angels
Jouent à la guerre     Play war
Imaginaire     War imaginary  

Imaginons     Let’s imagine
L’Ile d’Orléans    L’île d’Orléans
Un dépotoir     A dump
Un cimetière     A cemetery
Parcs à vidanges     Parks of sewage
Boîte à déchets    A box of waste
U. S. parkings     U. S. parking
On veut la mettre     They want to put her
En mini-jupe     In a mini-skirt
And speak English     And speak English
Faire ça à elle     Do that to her
L’Ile d’Orléans     L’île d’Orléans
Notre fleur de lys     Our fleur de lys

Mais c’est pas vrai     But it’s not true
Ben oui c’est vrai     Well, yes it’s true
Raconte encore     Tell me again

Sous un nuage     Under a cloud
Près d’un cours d’eau     Near a stream
C’est un berceau     It’s a cradle
Et un grand-père     And a blue-eyed
Au regard bleu     Grandfather
Qui monte la garde     Stands guard
Il sait pas trop     He doesn’t quite know
Ce qu’on dit dans     What they say
Les capitales     In large cities (capitals)
L’œil vers le golfe     Looking towards the gulf
Ou Montréal     Or Montréal
Guette le signal     He watches for the signal

Pour célébrer    To celebrate
L’indépendance     Independence
Quand on y pense     When one thinks about it
C’est-y en France     Is it in France
C’est comme en France     It’s like France
Le tour de l’île    Round the island
Quarante-deux milles     Forty-two miles
Comme des vagues    Like waves
Les montagnes     Mountains
Les fruits sont mûrs    The fruit is ripe
Dans les vergers     In the orchards
De mon pays     Of my land

Ça signifie     It means
L’heure est venue     The hour has come
Si t’as compris     If you understood

Related image

Jeune Fille, Jean-Paul Lemieux, 1957 (Galerie d’Art Michel Bigué)

© Micheline Walker
11 August 2018
WordPress

The Battle of Quebec

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Le Combat de la Danaé (The Battle of Quebec) (arr. S. Bergeron)
interprète: Meredith Hall
album: La Traverse miraculeuse / Le Combat de Québec [1]

La Nef [The Nave]: Sylvain Bergeron, Lisa Ornstein, David Greenberg, Patrick Graham, Amanda Keesmat, Pierre-Yves Martel, Seàn Dagher

Old French Songs (cont’d)

—ooo—

Come, all you old men all, let this delight you; (a)
Come, all you young men all, let affright you;
Nor let your courage fail when comes the trial.
Nor do not be afraid at the first denial.

C’est le 27 de mars, sans attendre plus tard / qu’est le départ
Bart, ce grand guerrier, / nous a tous commandé.
Nous sommes partis de la France, / confiants dans la Providence,
priant Dieu de nous secourir / dans le danger de périr.
Le premier jour partant / nous aperçûmes sous vent / un bâtiment
Trois autres au vent de nous / qui poussaient droit sur nous.
Nous leur avons fait reconnaître / que nous en serions les maîtres,
nous tenant tous les deux d’accord, / nous avons viré de bord.
La Danaé!

Brave Wolfe drew up his men in a line so pretty. (b)
On the Plains of Abraham,[1] before the city.
The French came marching down, arrayed to meet them.
In double numbers round, resolved to beat them.

L’Anglais tout d’un courroux [wrath]/ arrive au bord de nous
et tout d’un coup tire un coup de canon / sur notre pavillon;
C’est son petit mât de misaine [small mast] / qui est tombé à la traîne [dragging]
et son grand mât d’artimon [large mast] / qui est tombé sur le pont.
Bart, voyant cela / au milieu du combat / et du fracas
en rejoignant les mains / prit le Ciel à témoin.
Bart dit à son équipage: / « allons mes enfants courage,
faisons voir à ces Anglais / la valeur de nous, Français. »
La Danaé!

The drums did loudly beat, with colors flying (c)
The purple gore did stream and men lay dying
Then shot from off his horse fell that brave hero
We’ll long lament his loss that day in sorrow

Le feu de tous côtés / par trois vaisseaux armés / sans relâcher [relentlessly]
a mis hors de combat [taken out of combat] / ce valeureux soldat.
Ce fut su’l’gaillard d’arrière [at the back of the ship] / qu’il tomba par en arrière
et par un boulet [bullet] de canon, / il tomba mort sur le pont.
Grand Dieu quelle misère / de voir la Dan / tout démantée, [dismantled]
ses voiles [sails] et ses haubans [ropes]/ ne battre plus au vent!
Hélas grand Dieu quelle misère / de voir devant à l’arrière
cent cinquante hommes étendus / et les autres n’en pouvant plus
La Danaé!

He raised up his head where the guns did rattle, (d)
And to his aide he said, “How goes the battle?”
“Quebec is all our own, they can’t prevent it”
He said without a groan, “I die contented.”

Vous autres Français, Flamands / qui voyez nos tourments / qui sont si grands,
apprenez la misère / que nous avons souffert
pour sauver l’honneur de la France; / vous Anglais pleins d’impudence,
à moins de nous laisser aller, / nous vous aurons prisonniers!
La Danaé!

—ooo—

A translation

Come, all you old men all, let this delight you; (a)
Come, all you young men all, let affright you;
Nor let your courage fail when comes the trial.
Nor do not be afraid at the first denial.

We left on 27th March, without further delay.
Bart, that great warrior, was in command.
We left France trusting Providence and praying to God
to rescue us, should our lives be endangered.
On the first day, we saw beneath the wind a bâtiment (?)
and three other ships, headed in our direction.
Both of us agreeing, we decided to turn around.
La Danaé!

Brave Wolfe drew up his men in a line so pretty. (b)
On the Plains of Abraham, before the city.
The French came marching down, arrayed to meet them.
In double numbers round, resolved to beat them.

The angry English sailed up to the side of our ship.
All of a sudden they shot at us.
Our ship’s mizzen mast fell dangling
and its larger mast tumbled down to the deck.
Bart seeing this, still fighting as everything was crashing down,
joined his hands, taking God as his witness
and told his crew: Let’s go boys,
let us show the English a Frenchman’s worth.
La Danaé!

The drums did loudly beat, with colors flying (c)
The purple gore did stream and men lay dying
Then shot from off his horse fell that brave hero
We’ll long lament his loss that day in sorrow.

Shots were fired everywhere and relentlessly,
taking out of combat this valiant soldier.
He fell backwards at the back of the ship,
hit by a bullet. He fell dead on the deck.
It was awful to see the remains of our ship,
its sails and ropes [haubans] blowing in the wind,
and, at the back, a hundred and fifty men lying down.
The others were exhausted.
La Danaé!

He raised up his head where the guns did rattle, (d)
And to his aide he said, “How goes the battle?”
“Quebec is all our own, they can’t prevent it”
He said without a groan, “I die contented.”

You, the French and the Flemish, who see our torment, that are so great,
Learn the hardship we have suffered
to save France’s honour. And you impudent Englishmen
unless you let us go, you will be prisoners.
La Danaé!

Comments

Nous vous aurons prisonniers means: we will have you as prisoners. The context would suggest that the French would be the prisoners of the English. This sentence is ambiguous.

In both French and English we find rhymes. Some verses are shortened by singing rapidly. This is a difficult folksong. The length of the lines varies and it could be that French stanzas consist of eight lines. This would give us a total of four long (eight lines) stanzas in French ending with the word Danaé, and four short (4 lines) English

In this folksong, one can hear the braggart soldier. Such language may have stimulated sailors. On the one hand, it is as though we were hearing boys playing, but we are not hearing boys, but frightened sailors who may die. It’s not a game.

Ironically, if we listened to the English, we would hear them call the sailors of New France  “impudent.” We find fault with the enemy we kill.

RELATED ARTICLES

Nouvelle-France’s Last and Lost Battle: The Battle of the Plains of Abraham
The Battle of Fort William Henry & Cooper’s Last of the Mohicans

Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran

Sources

See The Battle of Quebec, History
Poet’s Collective Multi Site Network
Borduas and Leduc

____________________
[1] The final defeat (13 September 1759). Both generals died.

Love to everyone 

eglise_de_st_hilaire-st_hilaire_church

Paul-Émile BorduasÉglise de Saint-Hilaire, c. 1933,
huile sur contreplaqué.  Collection Renée Borduas.
Photo MBAM, Brian Merrett.
© Succession Paul-Émile Borduas / SODRAC (2013)

© Micheline Walker
8 August 2018
(updated 10 August 2018)
WordPress

 

Old French Songs: Le Navire de Bayonne

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Les Charbonniers de l’enfer

Charbonniers make or sell charcoal. Enfer means hell.

I hope I am not violating copyright legislation. This group, Les Charbonniers de l’enfer, was formed many years ago, and they have recorded very fine old French songs. On YouTube, one can, at times, access the words to the songs and an English translation. The lyrics have traces of old French.

The Danaé (1807)

C’était par un bon vendredi, nous avons parti de Lisbonne
C’est pour en France revenir, dans le grand navire de Bayonne
Nous n’eûmes pas dédoublé les pointes, qu’un vent de nord s’est élevé
A fallu carguer la grand voile, pour y courir au quart noroué.
Il a venté d’un si gros vent, grand Dieu, quel horrible tourmente!
La moitié de nos gens pleuraient, les autres chantaient des louanges;
Les autres chantaient des louanges; louanges, louanges à haute voix!
Que Dieu ait pitié de nos âmes, puisque la mort il faut avoir!
J’avons reçu un coup de mer sur le fond de notre navire
Les dalots ne pouvait plus fournir.
Coupez le grand mât, je vous prie!
Coupez le grand mât, je vous prie!
Et jetez les chaloupes dehors!
Garder les restes de nos voiles pour retrouver tous à bon port.
Le capitaine s’est avancé, étant le maître du navire.
Honneur dit-il, à qui vivra!
Le grand mât, c’est ma compagnie.
Courage, mes enfants courage, un vaillant homme nous gouverne!
Eh là! Tenez- vous bien de garde que le navire vienne en travers.
Ils se sont jetés à genoux priant la divine Marie.
Priant le Sauveur tout puissant qui leur ont préservé la vie.
Une grande messe nous ferons dire à notre bon rassemblement.
Dans la chapelle de Notre-Dame nous prierons Dieu dévotement.
Qu’en a composé la chanson c’est le pilote du navire.
Il l’a composé tout au long ah! c’est en traversant ces îles.
C’est à vous autres gens de France, qui naviguez dessur la mer.
Naviguez-y avec prudence, surtout dans le temps de l’hiver.

On a Friday we left Lisbon for France in the ship from Bayonne. We had not yet cleared land when the wind rose, and we had to furl sails and run before a nor’wester. /A great gale blew. Dear God, what horrifying torment. Half of our crew were crying, while the others were bellowing hymns. God take pity on our souls, we’re doomed. /A giant wave rolled over us, and the scuppers couldn’t clear the water. “Cut the main mast, l beg you! Jettison the boats! Keep the remaining scraps of sail, so we can make it to port.” /Then the ship’s master stepped forward. “We’re going to live!”he said. “I’m keeping the main mast. Courage, boys, courage. There’s a brave man in command. Keep watch well, and the ship will come through.” /We fell on our knees, praying to Mary and the all powerful Savior. “We’ll have a grand mass said, we’ll pray devoutly to God in the chapel of Notre-Dame.” /The maker of this song was the ship’s pilot, and he composed it while sailing through these isles. You, fellow sailors from France, sail prudently, especially in winter.

La Navire de Bayonne (arr. S. Bergeron)
interprète: Michel Bordeleau
album: Turlette et Reel
rédacteur: Yasutaja Nakata
http://www.atmaclassique.com/en/album…

La Nef [The Nave]: Sylvain Bergeron, Lisa Ornstein, David Greenberg, Patrick Graham, Amanda Keesmat, Pierre-Yves Martel, Seàn Dagher

Ozias_Leduc_-_Boy_with_Bread

Ozias Leduc‘s Boy with Bread, 1892-99, National Gallery of Canada

© Micheline Walker
7 August 2018
WordPress

 

Abbé Sieyès’ “The Third Estate”

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On 16 June 2014, I wrote a post, entitled The Bourgeois, members of France’s very large Third Estate. I did not, however, include a discussion of l’abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836). L’abbé Sieyès is the author of Qu’est-ce que le tiers-état, or What is the Third Estate, a pamphlet that reflects the ideology of the philosophes of the Age of Enlightenment in France, such as the writings of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

The Estates-General

  • Jacques Necker
  • Pamphlet

As the Estates-General were being convened, Genevan banker Jacques Necker, Madame de Staël‘s father, who had been Louis XVI’s finance minister during the period 1777-1781, invited a written definition of France’s Third Estate. Jacques Necker had been recalled and was in office from 16 July 1789 until 3 September 1790, when he was dismissed. Jacques Necker’s invitation yielded l’abbé Sieyès’ Qu’est-ce que le tiers-état? (What is the Third Estate?, a pamphlet, published in January 1789, that could be looked upon as the manifesto of the French Revolution,[1] had the Revolution not spiralled out of control. How could one anticipate the Reign of Terror?

What is the Third Estate?

L’abbé Sieyès presented a portrait of the Third Estate that described its ampleur or magnitude, especially the bourgeoisie’s. L’abbé Sieyès’ pamphlet was not a call to arms, but it stated that the Third Estate, 98% of the population, should be “something.” It was “everything,” but it had been “nothing” “in the political order.”

  • What is the Third Estate? Everything.
  • What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing.
  • What does it want to be? Something.

By becoming a priest, l’abbé Sieyès had elevated himself to the noblesse de robe, nobles of the robe. It comprised persons “whose rank came from holding certain judicial or administrative posts.” (See Nobles of the robe.) As members of the clergy, priests could sit among delegates of the First Estate, the clergy. However, l’abbé (abbott) Sieyès was not an aristocrat who had chosen the priesthood, but a bourgeois who had become a priest. He knew, in other words, that the old aristocracy resented the new aristocracy. (See the History of Nobility, acquired nobility.)

In Qu’est que le Tiers-État? (pdf) Sieyès writes that :

L’ancienne noblesse ne peut pas souffrir les nouveaux nobles; elle ne leur permet de siéger avec elle que lorsqu’ils peuvent prouver, comme l’on dit, quatre générations et cent ans. Ainsi, elle les repousse dans l’ordre du Tiers état, auquel évidemment ils n’appartiennent plus. (p. 10)

or

The old aristocracy detests new nobles; it allows nobles to sit as such only when they can prove, as the phrase goes, “four generations and a hundred years.” Thus it relegates the other nobles to the order of the Third Estate to which, obviously, they no longer belong. (p. 3)

(See What is the Third Estate? [pdf])

The Bourgeois

Born a bourgeois, l’abbé Sieyès chose to represent the Tiers-État, the Third Estate. It was everything. And it was growing. The sale of offices could lead the buyer, a peasant, to the bourgeoisie, which had ranks: petite, moyenne [middle] et grande)Blaise Pascal‘s (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) father was supervisor of taxes in Rouen, an office one could buy and transformed its owner into a bourgeois. Molière‘s father, Jean Poquelin, had purchased his post, “valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi” (“valet of the King’s chamber and keeper of carpets and upholstery”), under Louis XIII.

Some bourgeois were very rich and very powerful. Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683), served as minister of finance to Louis XIV, from 1665 until 1683. Finally, Louis XIV could not trust aristocrats. He remembered La Fronde (1648-1652), when aristocrats opposed absolutism. They had lost their role. Louis XIV’s advisors were bourgeois who constituted the Conseil du Roi, called the Conseil d’en haut, because they met “en haut,” upstairs. Peasants had not escaped feudalism altogether, but feudalism was waning.

“Consequently, the Third Estate represented the great majority of the people, and its deputies’ transformation of themselves into a National Assembly in June 1789 marked the beginning of the French Revolution.”

(See The Third Estate,[2] the Editors of the Encyclopædia Britannica )

Therefore, it was in Sieyès and the Third Estate’s best interest to ask that “votes be taken by heads and not by orders.” An “ordre” was an Estate.

L’ abbé Sieyès stated that the people wanted genuine representatives in the Estates-General, equal representation to the other two orders taken together, and votes taken by heads and not by orders. These ideas came to have an immense influence on the course of the French Revolution.

(See The Third Estate, Wikipedia)

Among the many causes of the French Revolution, the editors of the Encyclopædia Britannica write that “the bourgeoisie resented its exclusion from political power and positions of honour,” which would be the first cause of the French Revolution and which encapsulates Sieyès’ What is the Third Estate. The Third Estate was “everything,” yet “nothing.” I believe many scholars would also consider the bourgeoisie’s “exclusion from political power” a cause of the French Revolution.

Conclusion

Initially, the French Revolution was a meeting of the Estates-General. In Qu’est-ce que le Tiers-État?, l’abbé Sieyès stated that the vote of delegates to the Third Estate be counted by “heads,” not privilege. This request was not incendiary, nor was, in itself, the Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789), had delegates not started calling themselves a National Assembly. They swore “ not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established.” (See Tennis Court Oath, Wikipedia & Tennis Court Oath, Britannica.)

Meanwhile, Thomas Jefferson was helping Lafayette draft the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. He left France on 10 July 1789, four days before the storming of the Bastille. As for the military, in general, it no doubt remembered the Treaty of Paris, 1763, which ended the Seven Years War and had its North-American theater. France lost the battle of the Plains of Abraham, Nouvelle-France’s final battle. Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnial and Montcalm had disagreements, but forces in New France were inadequately supported by Louis XV.

When Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont visited Lower Canada, Tocqueville blamed Louis XV for the loss of New France.

In a letter dated November 26th, 1831, he [Tocqueville] criticizes France’s dealings with its North American colony during the 18th century, referring to the ‘abandonment’ of loyal subjects of the French Empire. Then he adds that it was ‘one of the greatest ignominies of Louis XV’s shameful reign.’[3]

But we remember.

Love to everyone

RELATED ARTICLES

Sources and Resources

L’Abbé Sieyès

Montesquieu

Voltaire & Rousseau

Voltaire’s Letters on England is Gutenberg’s [EBook #2445]
Les Lettres philosophiques de Voltaire is a Wikisource publication FR

Rousseau’s Discours sur l’inégalité is Gutenberg’s [EBook #11136]
Le Discours sur l’inégalité de Rousseau is a Wikisource publication FR
____________________

[1] “The French Revolution,” Encyclopædia Britannica
https://www.britannica.com/event/French-Revolution

[2] “The Third Estate,” Encyclopædia Britannica
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Third-Estate

[3] Claude Corbo, in the Encyclopedia of French Cultural Heritage in North America.

1024px-Le_Serment_du_Jeu_de_paume

Drawing by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. David later became a deputy in the National Convention in 1793

© Micheline Walker
06 August 2018
WordPress 

Cleric, Knight and Workman

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Cleric-Knight-Workman

A 13th-century French representation of the tripartite social order of the middle ages – Oratores: “those who pray”, Bellatores: “those who fight”, and Laboratores: “those who work”. (Caption and photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Cleric, Knight and Workman representing the three classes, a French School illustration from Li Livres dou Santé (late 13th century, vellum), MS Sloane 2435, folio 85, British Library/Bridgeman Art Library.

This lovely historiated initial, shows France’s three classes. Not only did the third estate, le Tiers État, work, but it also paid the taxes that supported the clergy, the first estate, and the nobility, the second estate. During the last quarter of the 18th-century, France was near bankrupcy, mostly because of its recent financial contribution to North-American colonists seeking independence from Britain.

France could have helped the North-American colonists, but absolutism and Louis XV’s profligacy had strained and humiliated France. In 1763, it lost New France.

In 1787, Charles-Alexandre de Calonne, the controller-general of finances, asked Louis XVI to summon an Assembly of Notables, members of which Calonne hand-picked. Charles-Alexandre de Calonne did not think that his plan, the taxation of the property of nobles and clergy, would be approved by the Parlement of Paris. His predecessors had failed in this regard. The Assembly of Notables refused Calonne’s proposal and Louis XVI dismissed his controller-general of finances. Calonne had to flee to England.

Charles-Alexandre de Calonne had also suggested that Louis XVI convene the Estates-General. Louis XVI did not do so until 1789. They first met on 5 May 1789.

One morning, Louis XVI had the doors to the room where he met delegates locked. Delegates repaired to an indoor tennis court where they swore

not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and affirmed on solid foundations. Such was the ‘spirit’ of the Revolution.

(See The Tennis Court Oath)

The French Revolution had begun. Feudalism, in France, was abolished on 4 August 1789.

feudalism

Feudalism (Micheline’s images)

RELATED ARTICLE

Love to everyone. 

Le Serment du Jeu de paume, Jacques-Louis David

© Micheline Walker
30 July 2018
(updated 31 July 2018)
WordPress

 

 

France: the Restoration of the Monarchy

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800px-Louis_Charles_of_France6

Louis XVII, portrait aged 7 by Alexander Kucharsky, 1792 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I just republished a post written in March 2014. It is far too long, but under Monarchy, it includes France’s return to a Monarchy. Moreover, it spans the entire 19th century in France and could be useful to students of all ages. It expresses France’s tentativeness after the abolition of the Monarchy. Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The Reign of Terror had begun and it went too far.

After Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo (18 June 1815), the War of the Seventh Coalition, the Monarchy was restored.

The first monarchs were members of the House of Bourbon Louis XVIII and Charles X. They were replaced by a monarch belonging to the House of Orleans, Louis Philippe I. Louis Philippe reigned until the Second French Revolution, in 1848. Both houses were Bourbon houses, the House of Orleans was a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.

I will now endeavour to divide my very long post into shorter periods. The following subject matters are mentioned but not discussed sufficiently:

&c

My health is deteriorating, but I love my WordPress community. Leaving you would hurt me. The solution is writing shorter posts.
You will find a new page at the top of my posts: the French Revolution and Napoleon. It is incomplete, but I will look for related posts.

Love to everyone 

Beethoven’s 7th Symphony, 2nd movement

1024px-Le_Serment_du_Jeu_de_paume

Drawing by Jacques-Louis David of the Tennis Court Oath. David later became a deputy in the National Convention in 1793 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

© Micheline Walker
28 July 2018
WordPress

 

 

The Nineteenth Century in France

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Louis Stanilas Xavier de France, Comte de Provence, Maurice Quentin de la Tour, 1762

Louis-Stanislas-Xavier de France, Louis XVIII, Comte de Provence, Maurice Quentin de la Tour, 1762 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The French Revolution

I would like to provide you with an overview of the history of 19th-century France. It has several insurrections and coups d’état. The first coup d’état took place on 18 Brumaire Year VIII, or 9 November 1799. It therefore precedes the nineteenth century by about six weeks. On 19 Brumaire, Napoleon I became First Consul and his government was the French Consulate. However, in April 1804, the French Sénat named him Emperor of the French, and he was crowned Napoleon I, on 2 December 1804. Joséphine was crowned impératrice (Empress), by the new Emperor, her husband. 

Events Preceding the First Republic

At the beginning of the 19th century, France was an unofficial Empire. As First Consul, Napoleon was the de facto ruler of France. He started rising to power during the National Convention (1792 – 1795) and continued empowering himself throughout the French Directory (1795 – 1799) as General Napoleon Bonaparte. The French Directory is identified as the third stage of the French Revolution.

Everything started with the meeting of the Estates-General of 1789. Significant events are:

The Revolution was radicalized (i.e. the King became an enemy) by the Flight to Varennes (June 1791). The Flight to Varennes was followed by the Declaration of Pillnitz (August 1791) and the Brunswick Manifesto (25 July 1792) in which support for Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette was expressed by Marie-Antoinette’s brother, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and the Duke of Brunswick. The Duke of Brunswick attacked France, but was defeated at the Battle of Valmy (20 September 1792). The levée en masse (conscription of 23 August 1793) gave France and Napoleon a huge army.  

The French counterrevolution, can be divided in following stages. 

  1. The First Republic was founded on 22 September 1792, by the newly-established National Convention.
  2. The National Convention: 21 September 1792 to 26 October 1795 (4 Brumaire Year IV). The Thermidorian Reaction (27 July 1794) put an end to the Reign of Terror.
  3. The Directory: 2 November 1795 to 10 November 1799. There were five Directors and the Directory doubled up as a style (neoclassicism). Neoclassicism became a style. On 4 September 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor Year V (4 September 1797) suppressed Royalists and nonjuring members of the clergy.  The Coup of 18 Fructidor was a genuine coup d’état, involving the military.
  4. The Coup of 18 Brumaire Year VIII (9 November 1799), created The Consulate, Napoleon I ruled unopposed as First Consul and would proclaim himself Emperor in 1804.

The First Empire

Although the French Sénat named Napoleon Emperor of the French, on 18 May 1804, Napoleon was a mostly self-proclaimed Emperor. He was crowned on 2 December 1804 and, as noted above, he then crowned his Créole wife Joséphine impératrice. She kept that title when Napoleon married Marie-Louise of Austria.

Napoleon suffered severe losses during the French invasion of Russia (1812) and at the Battle of Leipzig, fought in October 1813. France was invaded and the First Empire, dissolved. In fact, the First Empire ended twice. It ended first on 4 April 1814,[i] when Napoleon I abdicated and was exiled to the Mediterranean island of Elba, off the coast of Tuscany. Napoleon escaped and he returned to power. This period of the Napoleonic Wars (1803 – 1815) is called the Hundred Days (111 to be precise).

The First Empire ended a second time, when Napoleon I was defeated at Waterloo, on 18 June 1815. After Waterloo, Napoleon was exiled to a distant island, Saint Helena, where he died of stomach cancer in 1821.

The Congress of Vienna (1815)

The First Empire was followed by the Congress of Vienna, the foremost social and political event of the nineteenth century, conducted before and after Napoleon I’s Hundred Days.

The main players were:

The decisions made in Vienna laid the groundwork for various insurrections and, ultimately, World War I. However, the Congress of Vienna was the first meeting of a united Europe or European nations seeking peaceful coexistence. (See Concert of Europe, Wikipedia.)

The Two Monarchies and Three Monarchs

Napoleon’s Hundred Days, his return from Elba, complicated the installation of Louis XVIII, portrayed above. What a lovely child!

Our Monarchs are:

Comments on Charles X

Charles X undermined his reputation and popularity because of the Anti-Sacrilege Act (1825 – 1830) and because he proposed financial indemnities for properties confiscated during the 1789 Revolution (the French Revolution). His actions led to the July Revolution of 1830, when Louis-Philippe (House of Orleans) was elected King of the French.

Louis XVII Louis-Charles de France

Louis XVII, Titular, Louis-Charles de France Alexandre Kucharski
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Exclusions

  • Louis XVII became titular (having the title of) King of France on 21 January 1893, the day his father was executed. He died of a form of tuberculosis on 8 June 1895. He never reigned.
  • Louis-Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans or Philippe Égalité (13 April 1747 – 6 November 1793; by guillotine). Louis-Philippe II did not reign.

The 1848 Revolutions

King Louis-Philippe III was deposed during the 1848 Revolution. In 1848, there were revolutions in many European countries, including France. In France, certain matters had to be settled: suffrage (who votes?); the right to employment, etc.

The Second Republic & Second Empire

In 1848, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte was the elected President of France, now a Republic. However, on 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup d’état that transformed him into Napoleon III. He was the nephew of Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon III and l’impératrice Eugénie, his wife, fled France after a Prussian victory at the Battle of Sedan, fought on 1 September 1870 during the Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871).

Famed French author Victor Hugo fled to Guernsey when Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte transformed himself into an Emperor. (See Sources, below.) Karl Marx wrote an analysis of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte’s 18 Brumaire. It can be read online. (See Sources, below.)

Napoleon II, Titular

Napoleon II, Titular (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Exclusion

Napoleon II (b. Tuileries, 1811 – d. Vienna, 1832) was named Emperor by his father Emperor Napoleon I, on 4 September 1814, the day his father abdicated. He is titular (has the title of) Emperor, but never ruled France. He died at the age of 21, of tuberculosis.

Napoleon II in Literature

Napoleon II (the Duke of Reichstadt) was born in Paris, in 1811, and died in Vienna, in 1832. His mother was Marie-Louise of Austria. French playwright Edmond Rostand wrote a 6-act play entitled L’Aiglon (the eaglet), a Project Gutenberg Publication [EBook #30012], based on Napoleon II’s life. The very famous Sarah Bernhardt was l’aiglon (produced on 30 March 1900) and the play was a success, but not as great a success as Cyrano de Bergerac (1897). The real Napoleon II was:

King of Rome (1811 – 1814)
Prince of Parma (1814 – 1817)
Duke of Reichstadt (1818 – 1832)

Comments on Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte:

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte is the same person as Napoleon III. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte organized the coup d’état of 2 December 1851, staged on the forty-eighth anniversary of his uncle’s, Napoleon I, coronation: 11 Frimaire XIII (2 December 1804).

Hubert Robert

Le Tapis vert (The Green Rug, detail), Hubert Robert (Photo credit: Google)

The Children of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793; by guillotine) and Marie Antoinette (2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793; by guillotine) were married in 1870. They had four children:

  1. Marie-Thérèse de France, Duchesse d’Angoulème (b. 1778 –  d. 1851);
  2. Louis-Joseph Dauphin de France (heir apparent (b. Versailles22 October 1781 – d. Paris, 4 June 1789);
  3. Louis-Charles, fils de France and, in 1789, Dauphin (Louis XVII) (b. Versailles, 27 March 1785 – d. Paris, 8 June 1795);
  4. Princesse Sophie (b. Versailles, 9 July 1786 – d. Versailles, 19 June 1787).

Louis XVII was titular King of France from 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795. He never reigned.

The Third Republic (1871 – 1940)

Conclusion

The above adds up to:

two Monarchies (three monarchs):

two Empires:

Two Republics: Second & Third Republics

The Nineteenth century in France was an experiment in democracy. It was also a period of drastic changes. Feudalism survived until the French Revolution, so the 19th century was France’s Industrial Revolution. Previous forms of government were revisited, revealing tentativeness on the part of the French nation.

Some idealized the Monarchy (Gustave Flaubert‘s Madame Bovary [EBook #2413]). However, in the 19th century, only Emperors resembled Absolute Monarchs; King Louis-Philippe I was elected King of the French. The Church of France had to rebuild. It’s wealth had been confiscated in the early days of the French Revolution, at the suggestion, on 10 October 1789, of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord,[ii] an ordained priest and a bishop.

Terms:

un fils de France: son of a reigning king (France)
Madame Royale: title sometimes given the eldest living unmarried daughter of a reigning monarch (France)
le Dauphin: the heir apparent (France)
un coup d’état: the overthrow of a government usually planned within a previous government (an “inside job,” close to treason)
 
The Congress of Vienna (Photo credit: David King)

The Congress of Vienna, (Photo credit: David King)

Napoleon I's Hundred Days (Photo credit: David King)

Napoleon I’s Hundred Days (Photo credit: David King) 

  1. Louis XVI: guillotined (21 January 1793)
  2. Napoleon I: (9 November 1799 – 1815) Emperor from the coup d’état of 19 Brumaire, Year III until 1815 (defeated at Waterloo)
  3. Louis Joseph, Dauphin de France (22 October 1781 – 4 June 1789) (born to Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI)
  4. Louis XVII (Versailles, 27 March 1785 – Paris, 8 June 1795; died in prison) (born to Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI)
  5. Louis XVIII: reigned from 1815 until 1824 (grandson of Louis XV)
  6. Charles X: reigned from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830 (grandson of Louis XV)
  7. Louis-Philippe d’Orléans, Duke of Chartres (Philippe Égalité): guillotined on 6 November 1793 as Louis-Philippe II
  8. Louis-Philippe I: reigned as elected King of the French from 1830 to 1848 (son of Philippe Égalité or Louis-Philippe II)
  9. Napoleon II, titular, the Duke of Reichstag: (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832) (born to Napoleon I and Marie-Louise of Austria)
  10. Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte: (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) in power as President of the Second Republic (1848 – 1851) (nephew and heir to Napoleon I)
  11. Napoleon III: (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) Emperor from the coup d’état of 2 December 1851 until – c. 1870 (Franco-Prussian War)
  12. The Third Republic (1871 – 1940) (not covered in this post)

SOURCES:

Victor Hugo: Little Napoleon: Project Gutenberg [EBook #20580]EN
Victor Hugo: Napoleon Le Petit: Project Gutenberg[ EBook # 22045)FR
Karl Marx: The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (online)EN
Congress of Vienna (online account)EN[iii]
Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary is a Project Gutenberg publication [EBook #2413]EN
Edmond Rostand’s L’Aiglon is a Project Gutenberg Publication [EBook #30012]EN
David King‘s Vienna 1814 is an account of the Congress of Vienna
____________________
[i] See Treaty of Paris (1814), Wikipedia. 
[ii] André Castelot, Talleyrand ou le cynisme (Paris: Librairie académique Perrin, 1980), p. 64.
[iii] In The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Karl Marx writes that the coup d’état occurred between December 1851 and March 1852.
http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1852/18th-brumaire/index.htm
 

Napoleon I: “La Marseillaise” arr. Hector Berlioz

Louis_Charles_of_France2

Louis-Charles de France,
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Lebrun
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

© Micheline Walker
5 March 2014
updated 18 July 2018
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Errors: the Parking Space

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Passenger Pigeon by John James Audubon (Pinterest)

About the new apartment …

I’ve not finished settling in my new apartment, but everything I need works: the kitchen, the bathroom and the laundry room. As for the bedroom, it has its bed and dressers, but there are too many bookcases. This I can deal with …

But I don’t have a parking space in the basement garage, and, this, I cannot deal with …

Initially, this building had one interior parking space for each apartment. However, the first owners were given the option not to purchase their parking space, a mistake, and the parking space disappeared.

It could be that someone bought a second parking space, but I met with members of the Board of Directors, to whom I had written a letter, and they told me that realtors had offered prospective buyers a second parking space to increase their chances of selling quickly. Moreover, it is entirely possible that someone saw an empty parking space and started using it: squatter’s rights. If one has the gadget that opens the garage doors, they can drive in a second vehicle.

I was fine last winter. The people who sold me the apartment knew an owner who could not park her car in the basement during the winter months because she has studs put on her tires. She let me use her indoor parking space and I may be able to use that space again next winter.

But the problem has not been resolved. Persons whose parking space disappeared are inconvenienced in many ways:

  • first, they do not have an indoors parking space;
  • second, they pay to occupy an outdoor space;
  • third if the snow plough has to clear the outdoor parking lot, cars must be cleaned and removed by 9 o’clock in the morning. Owners will otherwise pay a fine of $60;
  • fourth, and foremost, these owners are unlikely to find a buyer if the apartment has to be sold. It could take a decade to sell this apartment, during which monthly fees would have to be paid, as well as taxes, insurance, etc.

Compiling Errors

Members of the Board of Directors with whom I spoke told me that errors committed in the past cannot be corrected. That’s not true. It may be difficult to correct an error, but not to correct an error is an error. To begin with, selling an apartment with more than one parking space can no longer be tolerated.

In the letter, and doctor’s note, I put in the Board of Directors’ mailbox, I proposed, indirectly, that it was probably best to give each owner a parking space in the interior garage. A warm car would always at the ready. Besides, what choice do we have? We cannot enlarge the basement. Morover, if an older person has to be outdoors scraping the ice off his or her car, it will be conesidered Elder Abuse: maltraitance des aînées.

As for the second or third car, it can be parked in the exterior parking lot and someone can be hired to clean and remove the car, and to return it to its place. With regard to penalties, these should be lifted. Penalties are offensive if a situation is prejudicial to owners whose parking space was “sold.” All that is needed is good will on every one’s part.

Last year, the government reimbursed my removal expenses, because I had moved to a building that had an elevator and could otherwise accommodate the needs of a senior citizen. It appears it is less expensive for the government to keep older citizens in their home and send caregivers.

I may stop driving in the near future, but I still think that it is in everyone’s best interest to find a solution.

The men with whom I spoke will no longer accept to serve on the Board of Directors. They sent everyone a note to that effect.

I apologize for telling you that story. Please concentrate on the pigeons.

Love to everyone 

This takes us back to pigeons, temporarily.

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Mourning Doves by John James Audubon (Pinterest)

André Messager‘s ballet, Les Deux Pigeons (Wikipedia)

laf_head_177

The Two Pigeons by Gustave Doré [EBook #50316]

© Micheline Walker
25 July 2018
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France from 1792 to 1870: Moments

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La Liberté guidant le peuple (Liberty Leading the People) by Eugène Delacroix, 1830 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

On 14 July, I wanted to publish a post on Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863), one of two illegitimate sons fathered by Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Périgord (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838) (2 February 1754 – 17 May 1838), but life took me to a second parking lot narrative. I am learning over and over again that planet Earth is not “the best of all possible worlds” (Voltaire’s Candide).

But let us first take a brief look at events, art, and life in 19th-century France.

The Duc de Morny and Eugène Delacroix: Half-Brothers

We have already met le duc de Morny (15–16 September 1811, Switzerland – 10 March 1865, Paris). He transformed the talented and beautiful Marie Duplessis (15 January 1824 – 3 February 1847) into Paris’ most prominent salonnière and courtesan. At that time in history, many marriages were arranged. In the aristocracy, lineage was a priority. Consequently, men took a mistress. The duc de Morny was born to Hortense de Beauharnais (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837) and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord’s grandson. But Hortense, whose mother, Joséphine de Beauharnais, married Napoleon I, married Napoleon’s brother, Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland.

David, Delacroix, Ingres: Romanticism and Neoclassicism

Part of Delacroix’s story was told in a post entitled Eugène Delacroix’s “Mandarin Drake” (5 June 2014). Delacroix is associated with Romanticism and therefore differs from Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) who is presented to students of the fine arts for works such as his Oath of the Horatii, a painting in the neoclassical style. Yet David is also the artist who painted The Death of Marat (1793), a masterpiece one cannot easily subject to pigeonholing.

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The Death of Marat (1793) by Jacques-Louis David (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Oath of the Horatii (second version; 1786) by Jacques-Louis David (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) is also a very prominent painter. His Grande Odalisque (1814) is magnificent, despite its share of Orientalism:  Art is Art.

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Grande OdalisqueJean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1814 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Régimes from 1792 until the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)

Between 1792 and 1871, France was a Republic, twice; a Monarchy, twice; an Empire, twice, and it suffered a Second French Revolution, which took place in 1848. The 1848 French Revolution echoed various uprisings occurring in several European countries, some rooted in decisions made at the Congress of Vienna (November 1814 to June 1815), which ended the Napoleonic Wars, others reflecting national disasters, such as the Greek War of Independence. The Greek War of Independence inspired Delacroix, and Lord Byron (2 January 1788 – 19 April 1824). Lord Byron had in fact, become a militant who died of a fever he contracted at Missolonghi.

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Étude d’Arabe assis, Eugène Delacroix, 1830s (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Love & Vive la France

La Marseillaise, Rouget de l’Isle and Hector Berlioz
version intégrale, complete with lyricsAlex Le Fou (YouTube)

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The Departure of the volunteers of 1792” (a.k.a. La Marseillaise), sculpture by François Rude, Arc de Triomphe de l’Étoile, Paris, France (Wikipedia)

© Micheline Walker
23 July 2018
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